Bacterial infection relates to Helicobacter Pylori, which is a specific type of bacteria that causes irritation and inflammation to the stomach. The infection contributes to the diseases like heartburn, bloating, nausea, and stomach ulcer. When we swallow the food, it passes through the esophagus and enters into the upper part of the stomach. Then the food molecules are broken down with the help of a strong acid. The anrtum (the lower part of the stomach) contracts more frequently thereby grinding and squirting up the food into the small intestine. The stomach is covered by a layer of mucosa that protects it from the strong acid. The use of alcohol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin, arthritis, and ibuprofen damages the linings of the stomach and causes different type of injuries to the stomach. Earlier it was believed that there were more than one reason for the cause of these diseases, but the introduction of H. pylori played a main reason for the cause of these diseases.
H. pylori infection is related to the fragile bacteria that are found in the mucosa layer of the stomach. These bacteria have long threads that attach to the underlying stomach cells. The mucous layer protects the stomach cells from strong acid and H. pylori infection. These bacteria generally do not cause harm to that extent as the other bacterial infection do. This bacterial infection is very common throughout the world, as it is causes the body to react. The rate of infection increases with age, so it occurs in older age. Teens and children also get affected with this disease, but the occurrence is rare. It occurs very common in youth living in the developing countries, where the sanitation is very poor. This infection remains in the gastric area and persists for a longer period of time, if not treated.
Diagnosis of H. pylori
There are basically three ways to diagnose H. pylori infection. These are as follows:
- Endoscopy- It is a procedure where a thin, lighted tube, with a camera inserted at the end, is inserted into the stomach through the mouth and the images of the internal stomach is viewed on the monitor. The physician removes small bits of tissues through the tube and these tissues are viewed under the microscope, and a final diagnosis is made.
- Breath test- In this test, a substance called urea is given orally to test presence of H. pylori in the stomach. A strong enzyme in the bacteria breaks the urea into carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is absorbed across the stomach lining and into the blood, as it travels in the blood to the lungs and is exhaled out. The sample of carbon dioxide exhaled is measured.
- Blood test – It is the final test of H. pylori bacteria, as it is used to measure the protein antibodies against these bacteria that are present in the blood. This blood test will identify all the bacterial infection present in the stomach.
Treatment of H. pylori
However, these infections are so common that sometime there are no symptoms seen, therefore no treatment is given to the patient. But these recommendations may change depending upon the development and research in this field. Nowadays, the treatment for acute gastritis has increased with acid-reducing medicines. H. pylori is buried deep in the stomach mucous, so it is hard to get rid of this infection. There are several antibiotics, which are used together to prevent the bacteria from developing. Currently medical researches are being developed as well as many treatment programs have started to find a cure to this infection.
Helicobacter pylori infection is linked with the occurrence of chronic gastritis and is a very common infection of the stomach. It causes peptic ulcers and gastric malignancies, such as mucosa-associated B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. It is the common bacterial infection which relates to the cancer involving the stomach.